Open Access Indonesian Journal of Medical Reviews <p><strong>Open Access Indonesian Journal of Medical Reviews (OAIJMR)&nbsp;</strong>is a bi-monthly, international, peer-review, and open access journal dedicated to various disciplines of medicine, biology and life sciences. The journal publishes all type of review articles, narrative review, meta-analysis, systematic review, mini-reviews and book review. <strong>OAIJMR</strong> is an official journal of Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sriwijaya, collaborated with&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CMHC (Research &amp; Sains Center)</a>&nbsp;and &nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">HM Publisher</a>. <strong>OAIJMR</strong> has <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">electronic ISSN (eISSN) : 2807-6257</a>. <strong>OAIJMR</strong> has <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International ISSN (ROAD) : 2807-6257</a>.</p> en-US <p><strong>Open Access Indonesian Journal of Medical Reviews (OAIJMR)&nbsp;</strong>allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and&nbsp; allow the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions, also the owner of the commercial rights to the article&nbsp; is&nbsp; the author.</p> (HM Publisher) (HM Publisher) Wed, 05 Apr 2023 07:58:29 +0000 OJS 60 Phytochemicals; Targeted-Based Therapeutic Approaches for Pigmentation Disorders <p>Skin pigmentation disorders refer to conditions that affect the color of the skin due to alterations in the production or distribution of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. The development of skin pigmentation is a complex process involving various signaling pathways, including the melanin synthesis pathway, the cyclic AMP pathway, and the Wnt signaling pathway. Dysregulation of these pathways can lead to the development of skin pigmentation disorders. Phytotherapeutic approaches have been increasingly studied as a potential treatment for skin pigmentation disorders. This literature review aimed to describe the basic mechanism of melanogenesis, various pathways involved in melanin formation, and certain diseases and their treatment through plant extracts. Plant extracts containing bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and tannins have been shown to have anti-pigmentary effects through various mechanisms, including inhibition of tyrosinase activity, reduction of melanin synthesis, and modulation of melanogenesis-related signaling pathways. Skin pigmentation disorders are complex and multifactorial conditions that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Targeting the signaling pathways involved in pigmentation regulation, particularly through phytotherapeutic approaches, represents a promising avenue for the development of new therapies for these disorders.</p> Sana Ullah, Rabbia Shoaib, Siyar Khan, Aalia Masood Copyright (c) Wed, 05 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mechanisms of Cellular Adaptation and Change: A Narrative Literature Review <p>Injury to cells and the surrounding environment, called the extracellular matrix, triggers injury to tissues and organs. Although a normal cell is limited by narrow boundaries of structure and function, it is capable of adapting to biological demands or stress to maintain a steady state called homeostasis. Adaptation is a reversible, structural, or functional response to normal or physiological conditions and adverse or pathological conditions. This review aimed to describe the mechanism of cellular adaptation in the human body. Cells adapt to the environment to escape and protect against injury. Adaptation of the cell, be it normal or injured, this condition lies somewhere between these two conditions. The most significant adaptive changes in cells include atrophy (decreased cell size), hypertrophy (increased cell size), hyperplasia (increased cell number), and metaplasia (reversible replacement of one mature cell for another less mature cell or change in phenotype). Dysplasia (a disorder of cellular growth) is not considered a true cellular adaptation but rather an atypical hyperplasia. In conclusion, cellular adaptation is a central and common part of many disease conditions.</p> Rachmat Hidayat, Catherine Copyright (c) Wed, 03 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Natural Physical, Mechanical, and Biochemical Barriers as Innate Immunity: A Narrative Literature Review <p>The specialized epithelial outer layer, including the skin and mucosal surfaces, is relatively resistant to most environmental hazards and resistant to infection by disease-causing microorganisms. This literature review aimed to describe the role of natural physical, mechanical, and biochemical barriers in innate immunity. The physical barrier that protects against damage and infection consists of closely related epithelial cells, including the skin and the sheet membranes that line the digestive tract, genitourinary, and breathing. The epithelial surface also provides a biochemical barrier by synthesizing and secreting substances intended to trap or destroy microorganisms (chemicals derived from the epithelium). Mucus, sweat, saliva, tears, and earwax are examples of biochemical secretions that can trap and kill potential disease-causing microorganisms. Microorganisms in the microbiome do not usually cause disease, although some are opportunistic in that they can cause disease if the integrity of the body surface is compromised or the individual's immune or inflammatory systems are damaged. In conclusion, natural barriers include physical, mechanical, and biochemical on the surface of the body and are present from birth to prevent damage by substances in the environment and prevent infection by pathogenic microorganisms.</p> Septi Purnamasari, Rachmat Hidayat Copyright (c) Mon, 08 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR) in the Body's Defense System: A Narrative Literature Review <p>Each cell has receptors on the cell surface that specifically bind to solutes (ligands) produced during tissue damage or infection. This review aimed to describe the role of PRR in the human body's defense system. The binding of the ligand to its receptor results in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways and cell activation. The B and T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system have developed surface receptors (that is, the T-cell receptor, or TCR, and the B-cell receptor, or BCR) that bind a broad spectrum of antigens. The cells involved in innate resistance have developed a distinct set of receptors that recognize a much more limited array of specific molecules. These are called pattern recognition receptor (PRR), and they recognize the molecular patterns in infectious agents or their products (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMP) or products of cellular damage (necrosis or apoptosis; molecular pattern-associated damage, or DAMPs). In conclusion, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) is a receptor complex that interacts with various molecules, such as PAMP and DAMPs. PRR bonds with these various molecules and play a role in various actions of innate immunity and adaptive immunity.</p> Ziske Maritska, Rachmat Hidayat Copyright (c) Mon, 08 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Inflammatory Response Plays a Role in Innate Immunity: A Narrative Literature Review <p>The inflammatory response is the rapid initiation and interplay of humoral (dissolved in the blood) and cellular systems designed to limit the degree of tissue damage, destroy infectious microorganisms, initiate an adaptive immune response, and initiate the healing process. This review aimed to comprehensively describe the role of the inflammatory response in innate immunity. Three key plasma protein systems are essential for an effective inflammatory response. These are the complement system, clotting system, and kinin system. Although each system has a unique role in inflammation, they also share many similarities. Each system consists of several proteins in the blood. To prevent activation in unnecessary situations, each protein is normally in an inactive form. Some proteins are enzymes that circulate in an inactive form as proenzymes. Each system contains several proteins that can be activated at the start of inflammation. Cells of the innate and acquired immune systems are recruited and activated by biochemical mediators produced at sites of cell damage. These molecules originate from destroyed or damaged cells, contaminating microbes, activation of plasma protein systems, or secretion by other cells of the innate or acquired immune system. Activation may result in the cell acquiring a function essential for the inflammatory response or inducing the release of additional cellular products that promote inflammation, or both. In conclusion, inflammatory cells and various protein systems (complement, kinin, and clotting), together with the substances they produce, act at the site of tissue injury to limit the extent of damage, kill microorganisms, and remove debris in preparation for healing: tissue regeneration or repair.</p> Rara Inggarsih, Rachmat Hidayat Copyright (c) Mon, 08 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000